Nationellt centrum för kvinnofrid (NCK)

Max Waltman

Titel: Lektor och fil.dr i statsvetenskap

Lärosäte: Stockholms universitet

Institution: Statsvetenskapliga institutionen


Hemsida:  (öppnas i nytt fönster)


Max Waltman is an assistant professor with a PhD in political science from Stockholm University. He has published scholarly and popular media articles on legal challenges to sexual exploitation (prostitution/trafficking), and on legal challenges to pornography and its association to sex inequality and gender-based violence. His work covers Canada, Sweden, the United States, and international law.

Waltman's PhD dissertation, "The Politics of Legal Challenges to Pornography", analyzes the obstacles and potential in democracies (Canada, Sweden, and the United States) to legally and effectively address pornography's empirically documented production and consumption harms, suggesting alternatives. It compares legal challenges to pornography under different democratic and legal frameworks on basis of an analysis of the large body of empirical evidence suggesting that pornography is a practice of inequality – a form of sexual exploitation causing sexual aggression and attitudes supporting violence against women, thus obstructing sex equality.

Waltman participates at international conferences, is consulted by legislative bodies domestically and abroad, and works with prostitution/trafficking survivors and feminist groups on policy initiatives. Apart from lecturing publicly on his topic, he is currently teaching on various levels and advises undergraduate and master students, including Fulbright scholars and other visitors to Sweden. He has stayed at the University of Michigan Law School as a visiting research scholar twice during the period 2006–2008.

Nuvarande forskningsprojekt

The Politics of Legal Challenges to Pornography: Canada, Sweden and the United States

Beskrivning av projektet
The dissertation analyzes obstacles and potential in democracies, specifically Canada, Sweden, and United States, to effectively address empirically documented harms of pornography. Legislative and judicial challenges under different democratic and legal frameworks are compared. Adopting a problem-driven theoretical approach, the reality of pornography's harms is analyzed. Evidence shows its production exploits existing inequalities among persons typically drawn from other forms of prostitution who suffer multiple disadvantages, such as extreme poverty, childhood sexual abuse, and race and gender discrimination, making survival alternatives remote. Consumption is also divided by sex. A majority of young adult men consumes pornography frequently; women rarely do, usually not unless initiated by others. After consumption, studies show many normal men become substantially more sexually aggressive and increasingly trivialize and support violence against women. Vulnerable populations – including battered, raped, or prostituted women – are most harmed as a result.

The impact of attempts to address pornography's harms on democratic rights and freedoms, specifically gender equality and speech, is explored through the case studies. Democracies are found to provide more favorable conditions for legal challenges to pornography's harms when recognizing substantive (not formal) equality in law, and when promoting representation of perspectives and interests of groups particularly injured by pornography. State-implemented approaches such as criminal obscenity laws are found less effective. More victim-centered and survivor-initiated civil rights approaches would be more responsive and remedial – a finding with implications for other politico-legal problems, such as global warming, that disproportionately affect disadvantaged populations traditionally largely excluded from decision-making.

Advisors were Jonas Tallberg (Stockholm University) and Catharine A. MacKinnon (University of Michigan Law School / Harvard Law School).

Projektet avslutat i december 2014

Publikationer i urval

Waltman, Max (2014) "The Politics of Legal Challenges to Pornography: Canada, Sweden, and the United States." Diss. Stockholm Studies in Politics 160, Stockholm University. Publikationen i fulltext

Waltman, Max (2014) "Assessing Evidence, Arguments, and Inequality in Bedford v. Canada."
Harvard Journal of Law & Gender, Vol. 37, nr. 2, ss. 459-544. Publikationen i fulltext

Waltman, Max (2012) "Criminalize Only the Buying of Sex". Room for Debate, New York Times, April 20, 2012. Publikation i fulltext

Waltman, Max (2011) "Prohibiting Sex Purchasing and Ending Trafficking: The Swedish Prostitution Law" Michigan Journal of International Law /vol. 133, nr. 1, ss. 133-157. Publikationen i fulltext

Waltman, Max (2011) “Sweden’s Prohibition of Purchase of Sex: The Law’s Reasons, Impact, and Potential” i Women’s Studies International Forum, Vol 34, nr. 5, s. 449-474. Publikationen i fulltext

Hägg, Carina (S), Max Waltman, Olga Persson (SKR) m. fl. (2011) ”Stärk prostituerade personers möjlighet att kräva skadestånd.” Göteborgs-Posten, Debatt. 10 maj 2011. Publikationen i fulltext

Schyman, Gudrun (F!), Max Waltman, Olga Persson (SKR) m. fl. (2011), “Prostituerade är brottsoffer.” SvD Opinion-Brännpunkt. 9 april. Publikationen i fulltext

Waltman, Max (2010) “Förslag till regeringens utredning av sexköpslagen / Suggestions to the Government’s Review of the Sex Purchase Act” (Sweden) (2010). Skrivelse signerad av 12 ytterligare organisationer/individer (32 sidor) till regeringen med juridiska argument och forskningsanalys av prostitution. Officiellt mottagen av regeringens utredare den 17 mars, 2010. Publikationen i fulltext

Waltman, Max (2009) "Rethinking Democracy: Legal Challenges to Pornography and Sex Inequality in Canada and the United States" i Political Research Quarterly, Vol. 63, nr. 1, s. 218-237. Publikationen i fulltext

Schyman, Gudrun & Waltman, Max (2006) "Ge skadestånd till prostitutionens offer" i Dagens Nyheter, 25 juli, 2006.